Archive for 七月, 2017


rp_filter, reverse-path filtering,反向过滤技术,系统在接收到一个IP包后,检查该IP是不是合乎要求,不合要求的IP包会被系统丢弃。该技术就称为rp filter。怎么样的包才算不合要求呢?例如,用户在A网口上收到一个IP包,检查其IP为B。然后考查:对于B这个IP,在发送时应该用哪个网口,“如果在不应该接收到该包的网口上接收到该IP包,则认为该IP包是hacker行为”。

例如:

A: 192.168.8.100

B: (IGMP Query) 10.0.0.1 来自路由器

查找路由表

网卡1为默认路由: 172.17.5.100 172.17.5.1

网卡2 192.168.8.100 192.168.8.1

系统根据路由表,认为10.0.0.1这个IP应该在第一个网卡172.17.5.100上收到,现实的情况是在第二张网卡192.168.8.100上收到了。认为这是不合理的,丢弃该包。致命的问题的,该包是来自路由器的IGMP Query包。

The rp_filter can reject incoming packets if their source address doesn’t match the network interface that they’re arriving on, which helps to prevent IP spoofing. Turning this on, however, has its consequences: If your host has several IP addresses on different interfaces, or if your single interface has multiple IP addresses on it, you’ll find that your kernel may end up rejecting valid traffic. It’s also important to note that even if you do not enable the rp_filter, protection against broadcast spoofing is always on. Also, the protection it provides is only against spoofed internal addresses; external addresses can still be spoofed.. By default, it is disabled.

rp_filter参数在升级到RHEL6之后的版本后出现了比较大的改变,我们看下内核参数解析

在RHEL5的时候这个内核参数的含义:


/usr/share/doc/kernel-doc-2.6.18/Documentation/networking/ip-sysctl.txt

rp_filter - BOOLEAN
        1 - do source validation by reversed path, as specified in RFC1812
            Recommended option for single homed hosts and stub network
            routers. Could cause troubles for complicated (not loop free)
            networks running a slow unreliable protocol (sort of RIP),
            or using static routes.

        0 - No source validation.

        conf/all/rp_filter must also be set to TRUE to do source validation
        on the interface

        Default value is 0. Note that some distributions enable it
        in startup scripts.

在RHEL6 RHEL7之后这个内核参数的含义:


/usr/share/doc/kernel-doc-2.6.32/Documentation/networking/ip-sysctl.txt

rp_filter - INTEGER
        0 - No source validation.
        1 - Strict mode as defined in RFC3704 Strict Reverse Path 
            Each incoming packet is tested against the FIB and if the interface
            is not the best reverse path the packet check will fail.
            By default failed packets are discarded.
        2 - Loose mode as defined in RFC3704 Loose Reverse Path 
            Each incoming packet's source address is also tested against the FIB
            and if the source address is not reachable via any interface
            the packet check will fail.

        Current recommended practice in RFC3704 is to enable strict mode 
        to prevent IP spoofing from DDos attacks. If using asymmetric routing
        or other complicated routing, then loose mode is recommended.

        The max value from conf/{all,interface}/rp_filter is used 
        when doing source validation on the {interface}.

        Default value is 0. Note that some distributions enable it
        in startup scripts.

所以如果需要和RHEL5的行为保持一致,应该设置


net.ipv4.conf.default.rp_filter = 2
net.ipv4.conf.all.rp_filter = 2

否则在多IP/多网卡/多网段的时候,会出现非预期的丢弃数据包的问题
具体可以参考:
redhat 官方文档: https://access.redhat.com/solutions/53031
案例分析: http://www.cnblogs.com/huazi/archive/2013/02/25/2932021.html

lvs 需要配置下内核参数,否则会发生抢VIP断流之类的异常情况,本文档主要介绍DR模式下
首先是LVS 前端,需要设置两个参数arp_ignore和arp_announce


       echo "0" >/proc/sys/net/ipv4/conf/lo/arp_ignore

       echo "0" >/proc/sys/net/ipv4/conf/lo/arp_announce

       echo "0" >/proc/sys/net/ipv4/conf/all/arp_ignore

       echo "0" >/proc/sys/net/ipv4/conf/all/arp_announce

而后端的节点,也需要设置对应的参数


       echo "1" >/proc/sys/net/ipv4/conf/lo/arp_ignore

       echo "2" >/proc/sys/net/ipv4/conf/lo/arp_announce

       echo "1" >/proc/sys/net/ipv4/conf/all/arp_ignore

       echo "2" >/proc/sys/net/ipv4/conf/all/arp_announce

这里解释下这两个参数的含义:

arp_ignore - INTEGER
	Define different modes for sending replies in response to
	received ARP requests that resolve local target IP addresses:
	0 - (default): reply for any local target IP address, configured
	on any interface
	1 - reply only if the target IP address is local address
	configured on the incoming interface
	2 - reply only if the target IP address is local address
	configured on the incoming interface and both with the
	sender's IP address are part from same subnet on this interface
	3 - do not reply for local addresses configured with scope host,
	only resolutions for global and link addresses are replied
	4-7 - reserved
	8 - do not reply for all local addresses

	The max value from conf/{all,interface}/arp_ignore is used
	when ARP request is received on the {interface}

简单翻译下:
arp_ignore:定义对目标地址为本地IP的ARP询问不同的应答模式0

0 – (默认值): 回应任何网络接口上对任何本地IP地址的arp查询请求

1 – 只回答目标IP地址是来访网络接口本地地址的ARP查询请求

2 -只回答目标IP地址是来访网络接口本地地址的ARP查询请求,且来访IP必须在该网络接口的子网段内

3 – 不回应该网络界面的arp请求,而只对设置的唯一和连接地址做出回应

4-7 – 保留未使用

8 -不回应所有(本地地址)的arp查询


arp_announce - INTEGER
	Define different restriction levels for announcing the local
	source IP address from IP packets in ARP requests sent on
	interface:
	0 - (default) Use any local address, configured on any interface
	1 - Try to avoid local addresses that are not in the target's
	subnet for this interface. This mode is useful when target
	hosts reachable via this interface require the source IP
	address in ARP requests to be part of their logical network
	configured on the receiving interface. When we generate the
	request we will check all our subnets that include the
	target IP and will preserve the source address if it is from
	such subnet. If there is no such subnet we select source
	address according to the rules for level 2.
	2 - Always use the best local address for this target.
	In this mode we ignore the source address in the IP packet
	and try to select local address that we prefer for talks with
	the target host. Such local address is selected by looking
	for primary IP addresses on all our subnets on the outgoing
	interface that include the target IP address. If no suitable
	local address is found we select the first local address
	we have on the outgoing interface or on all other interfaces,
	with the hope we will receive reply for our request and
	even sometimes no matter the source IP address we announce.

	The max value from conf/{all,interface}/arp_announce is used.

	Increasing the restriction level gives more chance for
	receiving answer from the resolved target while decreasing
	the level announces more valid sender's information.

arp_announce:对网络接口上,本地IP地址的发出的,ARP回应,作出相应级别的限制: 确定不同程度的限制,宣布对来自本地源IP地址发出Arp请求的接口

0 – (默认) 在任意网络接口(eth0,eth1,lo)上的任何本地地址

1 -尽量避免不在该网络接口子网段的本地地址做出arp回应. 当发起ARP请求的源IP地址是被设置应该经由路由达到此网络接口的时候很有用.此时会检查来访IP是否为所有接口上的子网段内ip之一.如果改来访IP不属于各个网络接口上的子网段内,那么将采用级别2的方式来进行处理.

2 – 对查询目标使用最适当的本地地址.在此模式下将忽略这个IP数据包的源地址并尝试选择与能与该地址通信的本地地址.首要是选择所有的网络接口的子网中外出访问子网中包含该目标IP地址的本地地址. 如果没有合适的地址被发现,将选择当前的发送网络接口或其他的有可能接受到该ARP回应的网络接口来进行发送.

这里有个附加的例子解释

Assume that a linux box X has three interfaces - eth0, eth1 and eth2. Each interface has an IP address IP0,

IP1 and IP2. When a local application tries to send an IP packet with IP0 through the eth2. Unfortunately,

the target node’s mac address is not resolved. Thelinux box X will send the ARP request to know

the mac address of the target(or the gateway). In this case what is the IP source address of the

“ARP request message”? The IP0- the IP source address of the transmitting IP or IP2 - the outgoing

interface? Until now(actually just 3 hours before) ARP request uses the IP address assigned to

the outgoing interface(IP2 in the above example) However the linux’s behavior is a little bit

different. Actually the selection of source address in ARP request is totally configurable

bythe proc variable “arp_announce”

If we want to use the IP2 not the IP0 in the ARP request, we should change the value to 1 or 2.

The default value is 0 - allow IP0 is used for ARP request.

其实就是路由器的问题,因为路由器一般是动态学习ARP包的(一般动态配置DHCP的话),当内网的机器要发送一个到外部的ip包,那么它就会请求 路由器的Mac地址,发送一个arp请求,这个arp请求里面包括了自己的ip地址和Mac地址,而linux默认是使用ip的源ip地址作为arp里面 的源ip地址,而不是使用发送设备上面的 ,这样在lvs这样的架构下,所有发送包都是同一个VIP地址,那么arp请求就会包括VIP地址和设备 Mac,而路由器收到这个arp请求就会更新自己的arp缓存,这样就会造成ip欺骗了,VIP被抢夺,所以就会有问题。

arp缓存为什么会更新了,什么时候会更新呢,为了减少arp请求的次数,当主机接收到询问自己的arp请求的时候,就会把源ip和源Mac放入自 己的arp表里面,方便接下来的通讯。如果收到不是询问自己的包(arp是广播的,所有人都收到),就会丢掉,这样不会造成arp表里面无用数据太多导致 有用的记录被删除。

在设置参数的时候将arp_ignore 设置为1,意味着当别人的arp请求过来的时候,如果接收的设备上面没有这个ip,就不做出响应,默认是0,只要这台机器上面任何一个设备上面有这个ip,就响应arp请求,并发送mac地址

参考文档: http://www.cnblogs.com/lgfeng/archive/2012/10/16/2726308.html

免费https证书,早期有startssl,现在有 let’s Encrypt

Let’s Encrypt 是 由非盈利组织 ISRG(Internet Security Research Group) 带来的免费 自动颁发 开放认证的HTTPS证书服务

Let’s Encrypt is a free, automated, and open certificate authority brought to you by the non-profit Internet Security Research Group (ISRG).

Let’s Encrypt发展到现在,兼容性已经得到非常长足的发展,足以媲美geotrust globalsign verisign等商业证书,由于该证书还是天然三级证书链,性能方面也有明显的优势,更难能可贵的是: 它免费提供RSA/ECC两个版本的证书.

缺点? 基于安全性,只有90天的有效期,需要定期续签,另外它不类似于startssl提供WEB界面给使用者,需要使用命令行工具自行签发,有一定的门槛

本文的目的就是推广Let’s Encrypt 并降低入门门槛

1. 创建身份认证私钥

这个证书就是Let’s Encrypt 辨认识别你的私钥

openssl genrsa 4096 > account.key

2. 创建证书签名请求文件

CSR(Certificate Signing Request,证书签名请求)文件

创建RSA域名私钥

openssl genrsa 4096 > domain.key

创建ECC域名私钥

openssl ecparam -genkey -name secp384r1 | openssl ec -out ecc.key

生成CSR文件

openssl req -new -sha256 -key domain.key -subj "/" -reqexts SAN -config <(cat /etc/ssl/openssl.cnf <(printf "[SAN]\nsubjectAltName=DNS:4os.org,DNS:www.4os.org")) > domain.csr
openssl req -new -sha256 -key ecc.key -subj "/" -reqexts SAN -config <(cat /etc/ssl/openssl.cnf <(printf "[SAN]\nsubjectAltName=DNS:4os.org,DNS:www.4os.org")) > ecc.csr

 

3. 配置nginx 支持let’s Encrypt 自动校验

let’s Encrypt 是通过自签名程序生成一个随机文件,并访问你的域名的URL来校验你是否拥有这个域名的所有权,所以需要配置一个特定的目录和nginx location 路径,如果你有多台分布,请确认都能正确的访问到该目录文件.

创建用于存放验证文件的目录,例如:

mkdir ~/www/challenges/

然后配置一个 HTTP 服务,以 Nginx 为例:

server {
    server_name www.4os.org 4os.org;

    location ^~ /.well-known/acme-challenge/ {
        alias /home/xxx/www/challenges/;
        try_files $uri =404;
    }

...
}

4.从Let’s Encrypt获取证书

下载证书自动校验签发工具

wget https://raw.githubusercontent.com/diafygi/acme-tiny/master/acme_tiny.py

校验并获取证书


python acme2_tiny.py --account-key ./account.key --csr ./domain.csr --acme-dir ~/www/challenges/  > ./signed.crt
python acme2_tiny.py --account-key ./account.key --csr ./ecc.csr --acme-dir ~/www/challenges/  > ./ecc.crt

现在获取下来的叫做站点证书, 为了浏览器能正确的识别证书的有效性,需要把中间证书一并下载下来并和站点证书合并


wget -O - https://letsencrypt.org/certs/lets-encrypt-x3-cross-signed.pem > intermediate.pem
cat signed.crt intermediate.pem > chained.pem
cat ecc.crt intermediate.pem > ecc_chained.pem

5.nginx双证书 配置


#RSA
ssl_certificate ssl/chained.pem;
ssl_certificate_key ssl/domain.key;
#ECC
ssl_certificate ssl/ecc_chained.pem;
ssl_certificate_key ssl/ecc.key;

需要特别留意下: nginx 1.11.1版本以后才支持双证书,如果低于此版本,建议只使用RSA证书即可

本文主要参考了jerryqu的个人网站,关于https jerryqu做了大量的研究,Let’s Encrypt,免费好用的 HTTPS 证书

Geotrust:
优点: 非常便宜
缺点: 品牌比较弱, 不兼容安卓4.x及以下平台,于是签发了equifax Secure CA的交叉认证导致证书多了一级
使用者: 搜狐 weixin.qq.com(微信公众号平台等)

globalsign:
优点: 性价比高, 天然三级, 兼容性好
缺点: 品牌稍弱, 不支持安卓2.3和之前的版本, XP需要更新根证书后才支持(系统自动完成的) 黑历史让人担忧 (2016.10出现过错误吊销中间证书的严重故障 )
使用者: 京东 淘宝 腾讯(xw.qq.com等 www.qq.com和news.qq.com 也在这张证书但是暂未提供https服务)

verisign:
优点: 品牌强大 兼容性好 可以直接使用三级 支持ECC加密性能更优
缺点: 贵 支持ECC双证书会更贵! 不支持安卓2.3和之前的版本
使用者: 搜狗 爱奇艺 百度 腾讯灯塔平台(beacon.qq.com,广告营销大数据分析等)

总结:
geotrust 的兼容性是通过交叉认证实现的,这导致每次请求都需要发多一张中间证书,这会带来一定的性能损失
除了黑历史, 京东 淘宝 腾讯都选择了globalsign, 除了性价比的因素,对方天然的三级证书优势也很明显
verisign 品牌悠久, 兼容性好,但是价格就不那么美好了,是个保守而稳定的选择

当然,以上都是要钱的,对于个人用户,选择免费证书是更好的选择,比如: https://letsencrypt.org/

本文主要介绍HTTPS 部署和优化, 构思中包括以下内容:

1. 证书的介绍和获取
1) 商业证书
介绍市面上主流的geotrust globalsign verisign三家证书签发机构
2) 免费证书
介绍Let’s Encrypt这家了不起的免费证书颁发机构
2. nginx start up配置
3. spdy 和 http2.0 支持
4. ciphers suite的选择
5. 为何不建议开启ocsp
6. HTTPS优化
7. ie6的支持

先挖个坑,以后慢慢填

国内的一些域名商比较恶心,比如35互联.

当时我的域名是通过一个代理买的,我获得的权限就是一个DNS管理平台,可以指一下NS A CNAME等记录,但是域名资料信息什么的是没有账号修改的
刚好今年碰到域名实名,想着干脆就迁走吧,于是发信给35互联的客服咨询如何迁出.
本来做好了签名/身份证/转移书等邮寄到厦门的打算了,没想到35互联的客服压根就不想跟我谈,只是让我去找代理,但是代理也不管这事了…

这个时候就怒了啊,搜了下资料,被35互联这个大坑惹怒的人还真不少,投诉资料也挺多的,我顺便也科普下:
步骤1. 使用域名登记资料里边的邮箱, 正式发信给35互联客服,要求迁出,要求提供迁出密码
步骤2. 等待5个工作日,35互联肯定不会给你迁出密码的,要么让你找代理,要么让你邮寄资料之类的
步骤3. 上国际域名管理组织投诉去, 这里填表: https://forms.icann.org/en/resources/compliance/complaints/transfer/form
步骤4. 等上2-3天,icann.org 会邮件给你,要你确认是否迁出,并提供下原域名注册商不配合的证据(步骤1的邮件即可)
步骤5. 嗯,过几天,35互联的客服就会乖乖把迁出密码给你了

需要谨记,按照国际域名管理组织的规定, 只要你是域名拥有者,就有资格迁出域名和获取域名迁出码,不需要邮寄隐私资料,更加不需要找什么代理去谈